One main topic of urology involves the kidneys, those tiny organs located near the ribcage. Although they're small, your kidneys are responsible for stabilizing many substances in your body. The overall health of bones and blood cells relies on the hormones produced by the kidneys.
A urologist will also treat the adrenal glands, which are equally small, but equally powerful. Located just above the kidneys, the adrenal glands produce steroids and other hormones that your body uses to regulate kidney function, blood pressure and sexual functions.
Pediatrics, gynecology and internal medicine could all be involved when diagnosing, treating and managing patients with disorders in any of these areas. A urologist also specifically treats dysfunction of the male reproductive organs such as testes, prostate and penis.
Urology involves seven specialty areas: pediatric, oncology, renal transplantation, male infertility, urinary tract stones, female urology and neurouology.
A pediatrician my refer boys to a pediatric urology department to assess common problems unique to boys such as undescended testicles and structural problems with the penis. Another common issue addressed by this specialty includes problems related to continence in children of both sexes.
Oncology is part of urology when the issue involves cancer in the kidneys, prostate or bladder. Cancer care includes experimental treatment options, surgery and ongoing research in the field.
Another serious subspecialty focuses on renal transplantation. Kidney failure can result in dialysis or transplantation in order for a patient to stay alive.
Painful urinary tract stones can affect anyone. These hard masses can form in the urinary tract and can cause pain, bleeding, obstruction of the flow of urine or an infection.
Urologists can also specialize in the treatment of male infertility, diagnosing and treating cases of low sperm production or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm.
The specialty of female urology deals with the diseases in a woman's body when it relates to the bladder, kidneys or urinary tract.
When complications arise after a medical crisis, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, neurourology plays an important role in treating nervous system diseases and disorders that affect the urinary system.